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No equivalent study has been performed with the Chilean species of Gelidium. PROTECTION Tetrasporangia are ovoid, cruciately divided, 16-25 m m diam. 2b) a cortex with three to four layers of rounded, pigmented cells of 5-15 m m diam., inwardly increasing in size and decreasing in pigmentation. Thus, algin provides ice cream with a smooth texture by pre­venting the formation of ice crystals. Phytochemical investigations. Infrequently it inhabits sheltered, middle intertidal pools where the plants have elongated, almost cylindrical creeping axes pinnately branched to three orders. (3) Medicines: Lots of red algae like Corallina are used to treat worm infections. Its source is red algae. The production from wild stocks throughout Chile is just a minor part of this World Market. In Historia fisica y politica de Chile, edited by C. Gay. Indeed, in some areas such as Japan, the materials identified under the name of Gelidium also might include species of Beckerella, Suhria and Yatabella. By contrast, the middle intertidal species G. lingulatum and G. chilense will maintain their optimal growth rates under conditions of higher quantum dosage and long days (16 hours of daily light). Algae is Used as Fodder: Economic Importance # 11. In Chile fishermen refer to the various species of Gelidium under the common name of "chasca". Branches can be found along most of the axis, although they are scarce in the basal third. Cystocarps are borne on small, rounded branchlets with dentate margins (Fig. - gametophyte and sex composition Isotypes have been deposited in the Herbarium of the Sala de Sistematica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (SS UC), the Algal Collection of the U.S. National Herbarium/Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (U.S.A.), and the Herbarium of the B.P. Cortex of erect axes (Fig. Red algae/rhodophytes are an ancient group of algae with 5000 living species. The erect axes are cylindrical and simple or sparingly branched near the base. The kelp ash from these plants was widely bought by early industrialists for use in manufacture of soap, glass and alum. Tuatara, 14:30-63, Kaliaperumal, N., and M. Umamaheswara Rao, 1981 Studies on the standing crop and phycocolloid of Gelidium pusillum and Pterocaldia heteroplatos. This jelly was obtained by boiling up seaweeds and cooling the resulting liquid. Its members are known by a number of common names. Nowhere are the species used as animal fodder or manure. Tokyo, 6:101-4, Whyte, J.N.C., and J.R. Englar, 1981 The agar component of the red seaweed Gelidium purpurascens. 9.3 & 9.4 Human food, animal fodder and manure, 9.5 Industrial products They perform half of the total carbon dioxide - fixation on earth by photosynthesis, acting as the primary producers in aquatic habitats. As a stabi­lizing agent it serves in the processing of rubber latex .and in the printing of textiles. La Jolla, California, California Sea Grant College Program, (T-CSGCP-011):33-6, Santelices, B., and J. Correa, 1985 Differential survival of macro-algae to digestion by intertidal herbivore molluscs. 6). 8:345-70, Montagne, J.F.C, 1852 Algas. Gelidium chilense, G. lingulatum and G. rex are economically important in Chile. In the manufacture of electric lamps, a lubricant of graphite and agar is used in draw­ing the hot tungsten wire. Chlorella and Spirulina are rich in proteins. Previously; the specimen No. In such a simple operation on one has ever evaluated the efficiencies of the tools used, the percentages of the crop left in the field or the manpower requirements. Early industrial uses of agar in the Orient included sizing fabric, water-proofing paper and cloth, and making rice paper more durable. This is contributed by the algae, the only vegetation in the sea. Hoppe and O.J. No study has been performed yet trying to understand the population structure of any of the three Chilean species of Gelidium. Econ.Bot., 13:89-131, The wild harvest and culture of the economically important species of Gelidium in Chile, 2. Ecol., 70:263-9, Santelices, B., and S. Montalva, 1983 Taxonomic studies on Gelidiaceae (Rhodophyta) from Central Chile. AND MANAGEMENT OF THE CROP, 8.1 Management of In G. chilense the thalli become globose after 28 days. Vertical distribution of Gelidium chilense, G. lingulatum and G. rex in wave exposed, rocky habitats of Central Chile. The most diversified dietary use of seaweeds was developed by the Polynesians and reached its peak in Hawaii, where during the nineteenth century at least 75 species were separately named and used regularly as food in that island world. Since in both species there was a direct correlation between total standing stock and tetrasporangial standing stock, the interspecific interaction affected their reproductive potentials (Montalva and Santelices, 1981). HARVEST METHODS 2.4 Nutrition and growth. A survey of research and utilization. After getting enrolled for BSc, there are certain things you require the most to get better grades/marks in BSc. Yet, the newly settled juveniles of the kelp start appearing by the end of winter and are able to overgrow, shade and cover the thalli of G. chilense with their massive holdfasts (Santelices and Ojeda, 1984; Ojeda and Santelices, 1984). (Afc.Math.Nat. Erect axes arise from cylindrical or compressed, branched or unbranched creeping axes with numerous short haptera extending as individual axes or forming massive disc-like holdfasts. Recruitment was defined as the entry of new fronds into this size class, and biomass was considered as the weight of the frond excluding the first 2.25 cm. Gelidium rex occurs in low intertidal to high subtidal clumps of plants, sometimes forming a belt, and is frequently under the shade of the kelp Lessonia nigrescens (Oliger and Santelices, 1981; Montalva and Santelices, 1981). ECOLOGY AND METABOLISM, 4. The Subsecretaria de Pesca, a part of the Ministerio de Economia, Fomento y Reconstruccion is the national body concerned with the management, development and conservation of marine renewable resources, including the seaweeds. Annual production of Gelidiaceae ranges (Table 1) between a minimum of 15,000 and a maximum of 19,000 dry tons per year. It occurs only on shallow subtidal shaded rocky surfaces exposed to very strong waves and high water exchange rates. This approximation probably could be used elsewhere in populations of these algal species. Schmid, 1969 Marine algae. PROTECTION Algae and Limestone Formation: Economic Importance # 8. Field cultivation has been initiated either from spores or from vegetative tissues. The shortage of grain in many parts of Europe during World War I led to con­siderable experimentation with the use of seaweeds as food for cows and horses. This effect has not been observed in the normally wave exposed populations of Gelidium along Chile. 5.4 In addition to the unsightly appearance and the unpleasant odours and tastes, the presence of algae in reservoirs requires a greater concentration of chlorine for bacterial control and causes difficulties in filtration. 6). Tetrasporangia cruciate, 20-40 m m diam., arranged without order in sori on single or pinnately compound fertile branchlets, with dentate margins (Fig. Growth under photoregimes of 16 h of daily light is achieved only when the quantum dose is reduced to 45 m Em-2S-1. However, the species is most abundant and reaches larger sizes in middle intertidal pools with frequent water exchange. Gelidium chilense is the species with most widespread distribution. 1b). They are also useful in decreasing water pollution by realizing… Fertile branches simple or pinnately compound, somewhat twisted and densely congested. Section 2.3 reviewed the effects of various ecological factors on the growth and production of these Gelidium species. Axes distichously, plumosely or irregularly branched, red to deep purple although in some species deep green, blackish or caeru-lean. The following factors seemingly affect commercial beds in Chile, as elsewhere, but in general the ecological data to establish quantitative relationships are still lacking. Laboratory studies have confirmed these as low light saturation species. Margins of axes and branches conspicuously dentate, particularly in upper portions. Sea Front., 24(5):285-93, Dixon, P.S., 1961 On the classification of the Florideae with particular reference to the position of the Gelidiaceae. IPFC Spec.Publ., 3:1-55, Zaneveld, J.S, 1959 The utilization of marine algae in tropical South and East Asia. 2.3 Effects of ecological Answer Now and help others. This is in spite of the general observation, for example, that Bryozoa are common epiphytes on Gelidium rex. 6.1 Annual cycle of operations Primary Producers: Algae are the main Oxygen producers in aquatic areas. 1. When growing on barnacles and mussels on wave exposed, vertical walls, G. lingulatum is rather rigid, sparingly and often irregularly branched below, irregularly 1-2 pinnately branched above. PROTECTION As an emulsifier it is widely used in such products as water-based paints, French dressings, and cosmetics. NOAA Tech.Rep.NMFS Circ., (388):7-16, Tsuda, K.S., S. Agaki and Y. Kishida, 1958 Steroid studies. Plants sometimes occurring in mats of algal turf with extensive basal parts or in rather discrete clumps. The erect fronds can be cylindrical at the base, subcylindrical above and frequently compressed at their apical ends. Medullary cells rounded and ovoid in transection, to 30 m m diam., with extremely thick cell walls; rhizoidal filaments scarce in inner medulla. Algae is Used for Recreational Purposes: Economic Importance # 4. Those from Indonesia perhaps include Gelidiella acerosa. The species of Gelidium are supposed to have a "Polysiphonia type" of life history with equal proportions of tetrasporic and asexual generations (Kylin, 1923). Mature cystocarp protruding equally on both surfaces of the branch, usually with one or, more rarely, several openings on each surface of the frond. J.Exp.Mar.Biol. No data exist on mortality rates of natural populations of the economically important species of Gelidium in Chile. Hydrobiologia, 116/117:29-40, Barilotti, D.C., 1980 Genetic considerations and experimental, design of outplanting studies. It is most abundant on rocky intertidal shaded surfaces directly exposed to strong waves. nutritional content The agar content in the species of Gelidium varies with species (Table 2), season, location and environment. 1.1 Nomenclature A floating mat of scum may develop. During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the demands became considerable, and enormous quantities of seaweeds were handled in areas of rich algal growth. The plankton of the seas was probably of the greatest importance as a source of this organic matter. It is often impossible to distinguish individuals of Gelidium, therefore density measurements are infrequently used in ecological studies of these species. Upwardly they are strap-shaped (2 mm broad x 200 m m thick), with flat marginal branches in the upper parts disposed in an irregularly alternate or almost digitate manner. (ii) Agar is obtained from Gelidium algae. ECOLOGY AND METABOLISM Algae and Water Supplies: Economic Importance # 6. (N.F.Avd.2), 56:85 p. Levring, T., H.A. Gelidium lingulatum is maximally abundant in summer; the peak being correlated with temperature and photoperiod. Both, in Gelidium chilense and G. lingulatum the sporelings are light-saturated at 50 m Em-2S-1. Figure 6. Agar is obtained from Gelidium, Gracilaria and Gigartina. The industrial utilization of algae may be outlined in the following manner: Industrial utilization of seaweeds in Europe had its principal early development in the production of ‘kelp’, a name that originally referred to the ash, rich in soda and potash, derived from burning marine plants.

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